CAN YOU DO THIS FOR ME
Replies: Provide 2 thoughtful replies to the threads of classmates. Each reply must include an analysis of your classmates’ threads, based on any experience from your own professional career (if applicable) that might be relevant. All replies must be 200–250 words. Also, be sure to integrate the required reading in a logical and relevant manner.
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Submit your replies by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday.
Power, as defined by Kinicki & Fugate is the “discretion and the means to enforce your will over others” (p. 465). When looking at power there are a few different bases of power including: legitimate power, reward power, coercive power, expert power, and referent power (Kinicki & Fugate, 2018, p. 465). When looking at my personal workplace and my current leadership structure, I believe that my current supervisor exhibits expert power and referent power. Expert power is knowledge, skill, or information that comes from past experience or employment. (Kinicki & Fugate, 2018, p. 466). I currently work in a preschool, and my supervisor has worked in a preschool setting for over twelve years, and has served as the director of our preschool for the past five years. My supervisor has also gotten her Bachelor’s in Elementary Education, as well as her Master’s in Early Childhood Education. The combination of her work experience and her educational background give her expert power in her positon. Referent power is power that is based off of personal characteristics and social relationships, which elicit compliance (Kinicki & Fugate, 2018, p.466). My current supervisor is very charismatic and possesses a high reputation in the community. She clearly cares about the relationships with parents, teachers, and the students, which draws people to her. Both expert power and referent power are forms of personal power. Personal power has been found to be positively correlated with persuasiveness and relationship-based strategies (Melody, Fu, & Yu, 2013).
Some of the different influential power tactics that my supervisor uses are inspirational appeals and rational persuasion. My supervisor is a very inspiring and enthusiastic person, her passion for children and early education manifests itself often when trying to get us onboard for her visions and goals for our preschool. My supervisor also has lots of logical and factual information that she does research on when proposing ideas to us. (Kinicki & Fugate, 2018, p. 477). One tactic that I am thankful that she does not use is the tactic of pressure. Dr. Fischer in his presentation says that “leaders can certainly use pressure to motivate employees, but that can lead to a culture of fear rather than one of mutual respect” (Fischer, 2009). Our preschool is one where there is trust, open communication, and a desire to help one another succeed.
Kinicki & Fugate say that transformational leaders are those who, “transform their followers to pursue organizational goals over self-interests” (p. 527). I truly believe that my preschool director is a transformational leader. Transformational leadership plays a significant role in enhancing employee performance, creating a culture of trust, and building commitment (Sand, Goh, Muhammad Badrull, & Owee, 2016). I believe that because my supervisor has personal power and knows how to appeal to the employee’s values, motives, and personal identity; she possesses the traits of a transformational leader.
Ephesians 3:20-21 says, “Now to him who is able to do far more abundantly than all that we ask or think, according to the power at work within us, to him be the glory in the church and in Christ Jesus throughout all generations, forever and ever. Amen” (English Standard Version). When thinking about the concept of power, it is important for us to recognize that it is Christ’s power that works within us. We can exhibit the most God-glorifying power when we rely on the Holy Spirit in our leadership and in our everyday work environments. We must be careful not to idolize the type of power that the world craves, instead we must seek the power that comes from God and cling to Him.
Fischer, K. (2009). Power, conflict, and negotiation [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from https://learn.liberty.edu/bbcswebdav/courses/BMAL500_C01_201840/Presentations/Module%206/Reading%20%26%20Study/Lesson%207/7-Power_Conflict_Negotiation/index.html
Kinicki, A. & Fugate, M. (2018). Organizational behavior: A practical, problem-solving approach. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education
Melody C. P. M., Fu, P. P., & Yu, S. F. (2013). Relational power and influence strategies: A step further in understanding power dynamics. Chinese Management Studies, 7(1), 53-73. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1108/17506141311307596
Sang, C. L., Goh, C. F., Muhammad, A. B. H., & Owee, T. K. (2016). Transformational leadership, empowerment, and job satisfaction: The mediating role of employee empowerment. Human Resources for Health, 14(73), 1-14. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1186/s12960-016-0171-2
Leadership is the ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue organizational goals (Kinicki & Fugate, 2018). Strong leadership is required to have a successful organization. There are various types of leadership styles and knowing which the best fit for your team is crucial. Adapting to a leadership style and aligning it with an organization’s visions and values leads to the success of a team and an organization.
Leadership vs Management
Leadership and management are two concepts that are often confused and compared. A manager has the responsibility of carrying out the four management functions which include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Even though managers have a big responsibility in an organization, not all managers are leaders. For a manager to be a leader, they need to carry out the leadership responsibilities of management, which include communication, motivation, providing inspiration and guidance, and encouraging employees to rise to a higher level of productivity. Some managers have poor leadership qualities, and employees end up following orders because they feel obliged to instead of feeling inspired or motivated to do so. The primary difference between management and leadership is that leaders don’t necessarily hold or occupy a management position. A leader doesn’t have to be an authority figure in an organization. Leaders are followed because of their personality, behavior, and beliefs because they demonstrate a high level of passion for work.
Transformational leadership is a leadership style that can inspire positive changes in those who follow. Transformational leaders are generally energetic, enthusiastic, and passionate. Not only are these leaders concerned and involved in the process; they are also focused on helping every member of the group succeed as well. Their vision and personality inspire others to work towards a common goal. The way that organizational leaders behave, and in particular the way that leaders interact and deal with their direct reports, has been consistently shown to be a robust predictor of employees’ psychological and physical well-being (Donohoe & Kelloway, 2016).
The concept of transformational leadership was initially introduced by James MacGregor Burns. According to Burns, transformational leadership can be seen when in leaders and followers that help each other to advance to a higher level of moral and motivation. Transformational leaders focus on inspiring others and empowering employees. According to Kinicki & Fugate, (2018) “A transformational leader inspires motivation by offering an agenda, a grand design, an ultimate goal.” Transformational leaders sacrifice for the good of the group, display high ethical standards, and act as role models. Leaders must communicate the organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats with their employees (Kinicki & Fugate, 2018)
Charismatic leadership involves motivating others with an inspirational vision and personal charisma. Charismatic leaders are known to be humble yet ambitious. In prisons, correctional sergeants are entrusted as leaders to not only increase job performance, but motivate other in doing so. Most of them are unable to lead anyone and are afraid of inmates, but being that they passed a test they were entrusted with the position of being a correctional sergeant. The goal of leadership is to increase job performance. Leaders cannot increase job performance by coercing individuals into doing what they want them to do. (Kinicki & Fugate, 2018).
The charismatic leader and the transformational leader have many similarities and the debate between both leadership styles continues. Nonetheless, each leadership style serves different purposes. A person with charisma is able to capture people’s attention effortlessly, which goes a long way towards creating unity in a group. On the other hand, without transformational leadership skills, that person could lead the group in the wrong direction. Style and substance are always better together, so it’s important to strive to become a well-rounded leader. Leadership is described well in Philippians 2:4, “Let each of you look not only to his own interests, but also to the interests of others.” Leaders lead by example. According to 1 Timothy 4:12, “Let no one despise you for your youth, but set the believers an example in speech, in conduct, in love, in faith, in purity.”
Donohoe, M., & Kelloway, E. K. (2016). Transformational leadership training for managers: effects on employee well-being. In Creating Healthy Workplaces (pp. 231-248). Routledge.
Kinicki, A., & Fugate, M. (2018). Organizational behavior: A practical, problem-solving approach plus Connect. McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 9781260180909. Note: Students who have purchased a used version of this text may need to purchase the standalone access code for McGraw-Hill Connect. This code, if necessary, is listed on MBS.
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