The state of contemporary American politics, policy, and administration

Format

Write a scholarly essay addressing the question below.  Note: there is a limit of 8 pages for this question (double spaced, one-inch margins, 12-point Times New Roman font, including all tables and notes). References do not count in the 8-page limit.  You may not need eight pages, but do not go longer than that. Answers will be graded based only on the first 8 pages.

Question

There are a number of propositions expressed about the state of contemporary American politics, policy, and administration that are widely (but not universally) viewed as problematic. The scholarly literature has a lot to say about each of these propositions; and yet there is still more for scholars to learn about their causes and consequences. 

Exam will ask to choose one of proposition to focus on in your essay.  Past exam propositions have been:

  1. There are often large differences across states in implementation of federal programs.
  2. Politicians and bureaucrats often hold different preferences and priorities in terms of implementing policy and programs.
  3. Citizens are not engaged enough in governance (e.g., decision-making).

For your selected concern, write a scholarly essay drawing primarily on the academic literature and theories covered in Table 1 on public administration and Table 2 on politics.

Your essay should include two parts (of approximately equal length):

In Part 1, Review what is known in the published literature about the proposition (e.g., do we know it is true, what are its causes, what are its consequences). In this section, describe major areas of consensus/agreement among scholars and note any significant debates on the topic within the academic literature.

In Part 2, Present your own evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of this literature. Next, provide advice to scholars working in this area—noting future directions worth of additional study (e.g., unanswered questions, methodological gaps, etc.).

References

Abraham, M. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-396.

Arnold, P. E. (1986). Making the Managerial Presidency: Comprehensive Reorganization Planning, 1905-1980. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Bardach, E. (1977). The Implementation Game: What Happens After a Bill Becomes a Law. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Barnard, C. I. (1956). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bartels, L. (2017). Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Barzelay, M. (1992). Breaking through Bureaucracy: a New Vision for Managing in Government. Berkeley: The University of California Press.

Baumgartner, F. R., & Jones, B. D. (1958). Agendas and Instability in American Politics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Bennis, W. (2017). Organizations of the Future. In J. M. Shafritz, & A. C. Hyde, Classics of Public Administration (pp. 219-229). Boston: Cengage Learning.

Berkman, M. B., & Reenock, C. (2004). Incremental Consolidation and Comprehensive Reorganization of American State Executive Branches. American Journal of Political Science, 796–812.

Berry, C. R., Burden, B. C., & Howell, W. G. (2010). The President and the Distribution of Federal Spending. The American Political Science Review, 783-799.

Berry, F. S., & Berry, W. D. (1990). State Lottery Adoptions as Policy Innovations: An Event History Analysis. American Political Science Review, 395-415.

Binder, S. A. (1999). The Dynamics of Legislative Gridlock, 1947-96. American Political Science Review, 519-533.

Boehmke, F. J., Gailmard, S., & Patty, J. W. (2013). Business as Usual: Interest Group Access and Representation across Policy-Making Venues. Journal of Public Policy, 3-33.

Brady, D., & Volden, C. (1998). Revolving Gridlock. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Brehm, J., & Gates, S. (1993). Donut Shops and Speed Traps: Evaluating Models of Supervision on Police Behavior. American Journal of Political Science, 555-581.

Buchanan, J. M., & Tullock, G. (1962). The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Canes-Wrone, B. (2001). The President’s Legislative Influence from Public Appeals. American Journal of Political Science,, 313-329.

Canes-Wrone, B. (2006). Who Leads Whom? Presidents, Policy and the Public. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Canes-Wrone, B., & Shotts, K. W. (2004). The Conditional Nature of Presidential Responsiveness to Public Opinion. American Journal of Political Science, 690-706.

Cox, G. W., & McCubbins, M. D. (1993). Legislative Leviathan: Party Government in the House. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Dahl, R. A. (1947). The Science of Public Administration: Three Problems. Public Administration Review, 1-11.

Dahl, R. A. (1961). Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Dernhart, J. V., & Dernhart, R. B. (2003). New Public Service: Serving Not Steering. New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Downs, A. (1957). An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper.

Downs, A. (1967). Inside Bureaucracy. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Epstein, D., & O’Halloran, S. (1996). Divided Government and the Design of Administrative Procedures: A Formal Model and Empirical Test. The Journal of Politics, 373-397.

Esterling, K. M. (2007). Buying Expertise: Campaign Contributions and Attention to Policy Analysis in Congressional Committees. American Political Science Review, 93-109.

Fiorina, M. P. (1982). Legislative Choice of Regulatory Forms: Legal Process or Administrative Process? Public Choice, 33-66.

Follett, M. P. (1926). The Giving of Orders. Scientific Foundations of Business Administration, 132-149.

Gilligan, T. W., & Krehbiel, K. (1990). Organization of Informative Committees by a Rational Legislature. American Journal of Political Science, 531-564.

Golden, M. M. (1998). Interest Groups in the Rule-Making Process: Who Participates? Whose Voices Get Heard? Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 245-270.

Goodnow, F. J. (1914). Politics and Administration: A Study in Government. Transaction Publishers.

Gormley, W. T. (1986). Regulatory Issue Networks in a Federal System. Polity, Vol. 18, No. 4, 595-620.

Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, New Series, Vol. 162, No. 3859, 1243-1248.

Howell, W. G., & Lewis, D. E. (2002). Agencies by Presidential Design. The Journal of Politics, 1095-1114.

Huber, J. D., & Shipan, C. R. (2002). Deliberate Discretion? The Institutional Foundations of Bureaucratic Autonomy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Jones, B. D. (1999). Bounded Rationality. Annual Review of Political Science, 297-321.

Jones, B. D., Baumgartner, F. R., & True, J. L. (1998). Policy Punctuations: U.S. Budget Authority, 1947-1995. The Journal of Politics, 1-33.

Jones, B. D., Greenberg, S., Kaufman, C., & Drew, J. (1977). Service Delivery Rules and the Distribution of Local Government Services: Three Detroit Bureaucracies. The American Political Science Review, 148-165.

Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1966). Organizations and the System Concept – Classics of Organization Theory. Independence, KY: Thomson Learning Publishing.

Kernell, S. (1993). Going Public: New Strategies of Presidential Leadership. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc.

Kettl, D. F. (2005). The Global Public Management Revolution. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

Key, V. O. (1961). Public Opinion and American Democracy. New York: Knopf.

Key, V. O. (1964). Politics, Parties, and Pressure Groups. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell and Company.

Kingdon, J. W. (1995). Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. Boston: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers, Inc.

Krause, G. A., & Cohen, J. E. (2000). Opportunity, Constraints, and the Development of the Industrial Presidency: The Issuance of Executive Orders, 1939-1996. The Journal of Politics, 88-114.

Krehbiel, K. (1998). Pivotal Politics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Krislov, S. (1974). Representative Bureaucracy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Landau, M. (1969). Redundancy, Rationality, and the Problem of Duplication and Overlap. Public Administration Review, 346-358.

Lindblom, C. E. (1959). The Science of “Muddling Through”. Public Administration Review, 79-88.

Lipsky, M. (1980). Street-Level Bureaucracy : Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Lowi, T. J. (1964). American Business, Public Policy, Case-Studies, and Political Theory. World Politics, 677-715.

Lowi, T. J. (1969). The End of Liberalism: Ideology, Policy, and the Crisis of Public Authority. New York: W. W. Norton.

Lowi, T. J. (1972). Four Systems of Policy, Politics and Choice. Public Administration Review, 298-310.

Mayhew, D. R. (1991). Divided We Govern: Party Control, Lawmaking, and Investigations, 1946-1990. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Maynard-Moody, S., & Musheno, M. C. (2003). Cops, Teachers Counselors: Stories from the Front Lines of Public Service. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Mayo, E. (1946). The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (Second edition). Boston: Harvard University.

McCubbins, M. D., & Schwartz, T. (1984). Congressional Oversight Overlooked: Police Patrols versus Fire Alarms. American Journal of Political Science, 165-179.

McCubbins, M. D., Noll, R., & Weingast, B. R. (1987). Administrative Procedures as Instruments of Political Control. The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 243-277.

McSwite, O. C. (1997). Legitimacy in Public Administration: A Discourse Analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Meier, K. J., & O’Toole, L. J. (2006). Bureaucracy in a Democratic State. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Meltsner, A. J. (1976). Policy Analysts in the Bureaucracy. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Moe, T. M. (1984). The New Economics of Organization. American Journal of Political Science, 739-777.

Moe, T. M. (1989). The Politics of Bureaucratic Structure. In J. E. Chubb, & P. E. Peterson, Can the Government Govern? (pp. 267-329). Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Moe, T. M. (1998). The Presidency and the Bureaucracy: The Presidential Advantage. In M. Nelson, The Presidency and the Political System, 5th Edition (pp. 443-474). Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.

Moe, T. M., & Howell, W. G. (1999). The Presidential Power of Unilateral Action. The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 132-179.

Mosher, F. C. (1968). Democracy and the Public Service. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nalbandian, J. (2005). Professionals and the Conflicting Forces of Administrative Modernization and Civic Engagement. The American Review of Public Administration, 311-326.

Neustadt, R. E. (1990). Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents : the Politics of Leadership from Roosevelt to Reagan. New York: Free Press.

Niskanen, W. A. (1971). Bureaucracy and Representative Government. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.

O’Leary, R., & Wise, C. (1991). Public Managers, Judges, and Legislators. Public Administration Review, 316-327.

Olson, M. (1965). The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Osborne, D., & Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. Berkeley: The University of California Press.

Perry, J. L. (2007). Democracy and the New Public Service. The American Review of Public Administration, 3-16.

Pierson, P. (1993). When Effect Becomes Cause: Policy Feedback and Political Change. World Politics, 595-628.

Pitkin, H. F. (1967). The Concept of Representation. Berkeley: The University of California Press.

Pressman, J. L., & Wildavsky, A. (1984). Implementation: How Great Expectations in Washington Are Dashed in Oakland; Or, Why It’s Amazing that Federal Programs Work at All, This Being a Saga of the Economic Development Administration as Told by Two Sympathetic Observers Who Seek to Build Morals . Berkeley: University of California Press.

Radin, B. A. (2000). Beyond Machiavelli: Policy Analysis Comes of Age. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Redford, E. S. (1969). Democracy in the Administrative State. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rivlin, A. M. (1971). Systematic Thinking for Social Action. Washington: Brookings Institution.

Roethlisberger, F. J. (1941). Management and Morale. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Rohr, J. A. (1986). To Run a Constitution: the Legitimacy of the Administrative State. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Rosenbloom, D. H. (1993). Have an Administrative Rx? Don’t Forget the Politics! Public Administration Review, 53(6), 503-507.

Schattschneider, E. E. (1975). The Semi-sovereign People: A Realist’s View of Democracy in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Schneider, A., & Ingram, H. (1993). Social Construction of Target Populations: Implications for Politics and Policy. The American Political Science Review, 334-347.

Schulman, P. R. (1986). Conquering Space and Poverty: Implementation as Success and Failure. In F. E. Rourke, Bureaucratic Power in National Policy Making (pp. 450-469). Boston: Little, Brown.

Shipan, C. R., & Volden, C. (2008). The Mechanisms of Policy Diffusion. American Journal of Political Science, 840–857.

Shipman, G. A. (1959). The Policy Process: An Emerging Perspective. The Western Political Quarterly, 535-547.

Simon, H. A. (1945). Administrative Behavior, a Study of Decision. New York: The Free Press.

Simon, H. A. (1984). Models of Bounded Rationality, Volume 1: Economic Analysis and Public Policy. Cambridge: MIT Press Books.

Skocpol, T. (1995). Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Smith, K., & Larimer, C. (2018). How Does it Work? Policy Implementation. In K. Smith, & C. Larimer, The Public Policy Theory Primer (pp. 165-186). New York: Routledge.

Stillman, R. J. (1999). Preface to Public Administration: A Search for Themes and Direction. Chatelaine Press.

Stivers, C. (1995). Settlement Women and Bureau Men: Constructing a Usable Past for Public Administration. Public Administration Review, 522-529.

Sundquist, J. L. (1968). Politics and Policy; the Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson Years. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Taylor, F. W. (1911). The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: 202.

Tesler, M. (2012). The Spillover of Racialization into Health Care: How President Obama Polarized Public Opinion by Racial Attitudes and Race. American Journal of Political Science, 690–704.

Volden, C. (2002). The Politics of Competitive Federalism: A Race to the Bottom in Welfare Benefits? American Journal of Political Science, 352-363.

Waldo, D. (1948). The Administrative State: A Study of the Political Theory of American Public Administration. New York: Ronald Press Company.

Wamsley, G. L., Bacher, R. N., & Goodsell, C. T. (1990). Refounding Public Administration. Newbury Park: Sage Publishers.

Weaver, R. K. (1986). The Politics of Blame Avoidance. Journal of Public Policy, 371-398.

Weaver, V. M., & Lerman, A. E. (2010). Political Consequences of the Carceral State. The American Political Science Review, 817-833.

Weingast, B. R., & Marshall, W. J. (1988). The Industrial Organization of Congress; or, Why Legislatures, Like Firms, Are Not Organized as Markets. The Journal of Political Economy, 132-163.

Wildavsky, A. B. (1979). Speaking Truth to Power: the Art and Craft of Policy Analysis. Boston: Little, Brown.

Wilson, J. Q. (1967). The Bureaucracy Problem. The Public Interest, 3-9.

Wilson, J. Q. (1980). The Politics of Regulation. In J. Q. Wilson, The Politics of Regulation (pp. 357-394). New York: Basic Books.

Wolman, H., & Page, E. (2002). Policy Transfer among Local Governments: An Information-Theory Approach. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 477–501.

                                                                      EliteHomework